Cutting Simple Shapes Tutorial

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This tutorial will show you how to cut five simple shapes using three tools we sometimes take for granted as quilters – the rotary cutter, ruler and cutting mat. The shapes that we’ll make are: Square, Right Triangle (aka Half Square Triangle or HST), Equilateral Triangle, Diamond, and Hexagon.

Right Triangle, Equilateral Triangle, Diamond and Hexagons

For each of these shapes we are going to start out with the with a strip of fabric that is 4” in height. This dimension was chosen for demonstration purposes. You can vary the height of the strip to create different sized shapes. The strip can be any width – this one is cut across the width of the fabric.

4" Strip by Width of Fabric

Don’t be afraid of math here! Most every ruler and cutting mat designed for quilters has three angle measurements on it – 30° , 45° and 60°.  If you can line up these pre-marked lines you can make each of the shapes featured here.

30°, 45°, and 60° markings found on most quilting rulers and cutting mats

 

Square

The square is the simplest shape, of course. You simply make a vertical cut the same width as the height of your fabric strip. For this example our fabric strip is 4” so we make a vertical cut 4”. Easy.

Cutting a Square

 

Right Triangle (better known as Half Square Triangles)

There are many quick cut methods out there for creating Right Triangles a shape which many quilters simply refer to as Half Square Triangles. But, sometimes you just need to cut a simple Right Triangle.

I’ll show you two methods to do this from a strip of fabric.

First Method: The first is to first make a square as shown above. Then simply cut a diagonal line from one corner to opposite corner.

Diagonal Line for Right Triangle

This method will yield two right triangles.

Two Right Triangles

Second Method: The second is helpful if you just need one Right Triangle or if you have a directional print. You will start with the 4” strip of fabric. Line the 45 degree line up with the bottom of your strip with the ruler touching the corner of fabric. Cut. Viola – triangle!

Cut on 45° Angle for one Right Triangle

 

Hint: To cut out these Half Square Triangles to yield a finished square size of a certain dimension when they are sewn back together you must start out with a strip width that is 7/8″ larger than your finished size. Don’t be afraid, most ruler have 1/8” markings or 8 markings per inch to help make this easy.

Equilateral Triangle

A perfect triangle shape, the equilateral triangle is the same length on each side and it pretty easy to make. Lay the ruler on top of your 4” strip with the 60° line along the bottom of the strip.

Line up 60° marking with bottom of strip for first cut for Equilateral Triangle

Make your first cut.

Make your first cut!

Rotating the ruler so that the 60° angle is at the top make your second cut.

Rotate Ruler and line up 60° angle. Cut.

Presto! Perfect Equilateral Triangle!

Perfect Equilateral Triangle!

 

You can continue rotating your ruler and making 60° cuts to make more Equilateral Triangles out of the same strip of fabric.

Diamond

The Diamond shape is also pretty easy to make. Using that same 4″ strip we’re going to make a 60° cut. To demonstrate that you can use the marking on the ruler OR the cutting mat for any of these shapes, this time we’re going to use the markings on the cutting mat. Place the strip so that it on lays on top of the 60° line with the bottom of the fabric strip lining up with the horizontal markings on the mat. Lay your ruler along the 60° line on your cutting mat.

First 60° cut to make a Diamond

Next, using the 60° cut line as a starting point move the ruler over 4″ (or whatever the measurement for the height of the strip if you are using a different size strip). Cut.

Tada! You have your diamond now!

Perfect Diamond Shape!

 

Diamond with a Directional Print

If you have a directional print and want your Diamond to be oriented properly you will have to cut your 4″ strip at an angle FIRST. To make your first cut lay your ruler on top of the fabric and line the 60° angle line up with the bottom of the fabric. Cut.

Cut "strip" out on 60° angle first.

Next, using the 60° angle line that you just cut as a guide move the ruler over 4″ and cut again. You have your strip.

Move ruler over 4" to cut out strip.

Rotate your “strip” so that the parallel lines line up with the horizontal lines on your mat. Now, we’re going to make another 60° cut across the height of the strip.

Rotate strip on cutting mat and then make 60° cut.

Then, move the ruler over 4″ and cut again.

Move ruler over 4" and cut again.

You have your diamond!

Now, you have two perfect diamonds!

Two Perfect Diamonds

 

Hexagon

This method of creating hexagons will create a little bit of waste but, it is very straightforward and requires very few calculations so it is worth it! First you make a Diamond following one of the above examples. Then you lay the diamond on the cutting mat the short way (as shown in the picture below). Lay your ruler on top of the diamond lining the 2″ line up to go through the top and bottom points. (Note: If you are making this with a different height strip this measurement will be half of the height of your strip.)

Line your two inch line on ruler through the top and bottom points.

Cut.

Cut.

Rotate and repeat on opposite side. You have a perfect hexagon!

Rotate and Repeat.

This also works the same on the Diamond that is cut out of the directional print as well.

Works the same with the Diamond made from the directional print.

Perfect Hexagons!

Two Perfect Hexagons!

Now, you can cut five different shapes quickly and easily with just a rotary cutter, ruler and a mat!